Gunmen tried to kill Prime Minister Ariel Henry after a mass on Saturday at Saint Charles de Borome parish church to commemorate the 218th anniversary of independence, officials say.
Video posted online showed the prime minister and his entourage scrambling toward their cars amid intense gunfire in the northern city of Gonaïves.
The Prime Minister Henry has pledged to crack down on powerful gangs that are blamed for a wave of kidnappings and for seizing control of much of the gas distribution around the country, causing severe fuel shortages.
The prime minister's office said "bandits and terrorists" were behind the assassination attempt, and that arrest warrants had been issued for the suspects.
The security situation has deteriorated significantly since the assassination of President Jovenel Moïse last July.